We simulate the microstructure-precipitation inter-relations in alloys, using physical and semi-empiric models for dislocation substructure development, grain growth and recrystallization.

The simple example in the figure below shows the importance of excess dislocations formed during deformation for the kinetic simulation results: An increase of dislocation density of two orders of magnitude in tortion-tested microalloyed austenite relative to unstrained material is expected and leads to a perfect reproduction of the precipitation evolution during isothermal heat treatment.


Phase fraction evolution of NbC precipitate in microallyed steels with and without deformation. The dislocations introduced during the deformation accelarate the precipitation kinetics, both by increasing the number of nucleation sites (in this system, NbC nucleates mainly on dislocations) and by diffusion enhancement.